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Seminar 1


According to Dickinson (2016, p. 177),

‘instrumental behavior is controlled by two dissociable processes: a goal-directed and an habitual process’

What does this mean?


If you find this too difficult, stop reading at p. 182 and focus on just the first section.

We will cover some of the evidence Dickinson mentions in Goal-Directed and Habitual: Some Evidence.


Please follow the instructions for Seminar Tasks.

Lecture Notes

Where to Find the Reading?

In some cases the reference section of the lecture notes already includes a link to help you find the reading.

If there is no link in the lecture notes, start by searching for the title (and, if that fails, by title and authors) on google scholar. If this fails, the library has resources. If those fail, please check first with others on the course. If you still have problems, you may email your seminar tutor.

Ask a Question

Your question will normally be answered in the question session of the next lecture.

More information about asking questions.


Dickinson, A. (2016). Instrumental conditioning revisited: Updating dual-process theory. In J. B. Trobalon & V. D. Chamizo (Eds.), Associative learning and cognition (Vol. 51, pp. 177–195). Edicions Universitat Barcelona.